OOP terminology

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a style of programming that allows you to think of code in terms of "objects." Here's an example of a Car class:

class Car(object):

  num_wheels = 4
  gas = 30
  headlights = 2
  size = 'Tiny'

  def __init__(self, make, model):
      self.make = make
      self.model = model
      self.color = 'No color yet. You need to paint me.'
      self.wheels = Car.num_wheels
      self.gas = Car.gas

  def paint(self, color):
      self.color = color
      return self.make + ' ' + self.model + ' is now ' + color

  def drive(self):
      if self.wheels < Car.num_wheels or self.gas <= 0:
          return 'Cannot drive!'
      self.gas -= 10
      return self.make + ' ' + self.model + ' goes vroom!'

  def pop_tire(self):
      if self.wheels > 0:
          self.wheels -= 1

  def fill_gas(self):
      self.gas += 20
      return 'Gas level: ' + str(self.gas)

Here's some terminology:

  • class: a blueprint for how to build a certain type of object. The Car class (shown above) describes the behavior and data that all Car objects have.
  • instance: a particular occurrence of a class. In Python, we create instances of a class like this:

    >>> my_car = Car('Tesla', 'Model S')

    my_car is an instance of the Car class.

  • attribute or field: a variable that belongs to the class. Think of an attribute as a quality of the object: cars have wheels and size, so we have given our Car class self.wheels and self.size attributes. We can access attributes using dot notation:

    >>> my_car.size
    'Tiny'
    >>> my_car.wheels
    4
  • method: Methods are just like normal functions, except that they are tied to an instance or a class. Think of a method as a "verb" of the class: cars can drive and also pop their tires, so we have given our Car class the methods drive and pop_tire. We call methods using dot notation:

    >>> my_car = Car('Tesla', 'Model S')
    >>> my_car.drive()
    'Tesla Model S goes vroom!'
  • constructor: As with data abstraction, constructors describe how to build an instance of the class. Most classes have a constructor. In Python, the constructor of the class defined as __init__. For example, here is the Car class's constructor:

    def __init__(self, make, model):
            self.make = make
            self.model = model
            self.color = 'No color yet. You need to paint me.'
            self.wheels = Car.num_wheels
            self.gas = Car.gas

    The constructor takes in two arguments, make and model. As you can see, the constructor also creates the self.color, self.wheels and self.gas attributes.

  • self: in Python, self is the first parameter for many methods (in this class, we will only use methods whose first parameter is self). When a method is called, self is bound to an instance of the class. For example:

    >>> my_car = Car('Tesla', 'Model S')
    >>> my_car.drive()

    Notice that the drive method takes in self as an argument, but it looks like we didn't pass one in! This is because the dot notation implicitly passes in car as self for us.

Car WWPD

Question 1: Car

Use OK to test your knowledge with the following What would Python print questions:

python3 ok -q car -u

If you get stuck try typing these in the interpreter yourself

python3 -i

Keyboard

Question 2: Keyboard

We'd like to create a Keyboard class that takes in an arbitrary number of Buttons and stores these Buttons in a dictionary. The keys in the dictionary will be ints that represent the position on the Keyboard, and the values will be the respective Button. Fill out the methods in the Keyboard class according to each description, using the doctests as a reference for the behavior of a Keyboard.

class Keyboard:
    """A Keyboard takes in a list of buttons, and has a
    dictionary of positions as keys, and Buttons as values.

    >>> b1 = Button("button1", "H")
    >>> b2 = Button("button2", "I")
    >>> k = Keyboard([b1, b2])
    >>> "button1" in k.buttons.keys() # Make sure to add the button to dictionary
    True
    >>> k.buttons["button1"].letter
    'H'
    >>> k.buttons["button1"].name
    'button1'
    >>> k.press("button1")
    'H'
    >>> k.press("button100")
    ''
    >>> b1.pressed
    1
    >>> b2.pressed
    0
    >>> k.typing(["button1", "button2"])
    'HI'
    >>> k.typing(["button2", "button1"])
    'IH'
    >>> b1.pressed # make sure typing calls press!
    3
    >>> b2.pressed
    2
    """

    def __init__(self, buttons):
        self.buttons = {}
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
for button in buttons: self.buttons[button.name] = button
def press(self, name): """Takes in a position of the button pressed, and returns that button's output. Return an empty string if the button does not exist. You can access the keys of a dictionary d with d.keys(). """
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
if name in self.buttons.keys(): b = self.buttons[name] b.pressed += 1 return b.letter return ''
def typing(self, typing_input): """Takes in a list of buttons to be pressed, and returns the total output. Make sure to call self.press"""
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
accumulate = '' for name in typing_input: accumulate+=self.press(name) return accumulate
class Button: def __init__(self, name, letter): self.name = name self.letter = letter self.pressed = 0

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q Keyboard

Table

In this lab, you will implement a version of the Table object from Data 8, that we are calling T88ble, appropriately pronounced T-88-bel. We aren't going to make you implement every single function, but we have table.select()ed the functions table.where(difficulty, are.below(insane)) and table.where(concepts, are.equal_to(relevant)).

Notice that we are representing tables here as a list of rows.

Question 3: Basic

Complete the num_rows, num_cols, and labels functions according to the docstrings.

    def num_rows(self):
        """
        Compute the number of rows in a table.

        >>> simple_table = T88ble(simple_table_rows, simple_table_labels)
        >>> simple_table.num_rows()
        2
        >>> longer_table = T88ble(longer_table_rows, longer_table_labels)
        >>> longer_table.num_rows()
        3
        """
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
return len(self.rows)
def num_cols(self): """ Compute the number of cols in a table. >>> simple_table = T88ble(simple_table_rows, simple_table_labels) >>> simple_table.num_cols() 2 >>> longer_table = T88ble(longer_table_rows, longer_table_labels) >>> longer_table.num_cols() 5 """
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
return len(self.rows[0])
def labels(self): """ Lists the column labels in a table. >>> simple_table = T88ble(simple_table_rows, simple_table_labels) >>> simple_table.labels() ['Flavor', 'Price'] >>> longer_table = T88ble(longer_table_rows, longer_table_labels) >>> labels = longer_table.labels() # Make sure to return and not print >>> labels ['Year', 'Bread price', 'Eggs price', 'Average tank of gas', 'Rent per day'] """
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
return self.column_labels

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q T88ble.num_rows

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q T88ble.num_cols

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q T88ble.labels

Question 4: Column Methods

Complete the column, select, and with_column functions according to the docstrings.

You might find the list.index(value) function to be particularly useful for this problem. Check out the python docs here

    def column(self, label):
        """
        Returns the values of the column represented by label.

        >>> simple_table = T88ble(simple_table_rows, simple_table_labels)
        >>> simple_table.column("Flavor")
        ['chocolate', 'vanilla']
        >>> longer_table = T88ble(longer_table_rows, longer_table_labels)
        >>> column = longer_table.column("Eggs price")
        >>> column # Make sure to return and not print
        [1.5, 2.5, 4]
        >>> longer_table # Make sure not to mutate the original table
        ['Year', 'Bread price', 'Eggs price', 'Average tank of gas', 'Rent per day']
        [1990, 1, 1.5, 12, 7]
        [2000, 2, 2.5, 25, 10]
        [2010, 5, 4, 70, 36]
        """
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
label_index = self.labels().index(label) return [row[label_index] for row in self.rows]
def with_column(self, label, values): """ Returns a new table with an additional or replaced column. label is a string for the name of a column, values is an list >>> longer_table = T88ble(longer_table_rows, longer_table_labels) >>> new_table = longer_table.with_column('Inflation rate', [i for i in range(longer_table.num_rows())]) >>> new_table ['Year', 'Bread price', 'Eggs price', 'Average tank of gas', 'Rent per day', 'Inflation rate'] [1990, 1, 1.5, 12, 7, 0] [2000, 2, 2.5, 25, 10, 1] [2010, 5, 4, 70, 36, 2] >>> longer_table # Make sure not to mutate the original table ['Year', 'Bread price', 'Eggs price', 'Average tank of gas', 'Rent per day'] [1990, 1, 1.5, 12, 7] [2000, 2, 2.5, 25, 10] [2010, 5, 4, 70, 36] """
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
new_rows = [self.rows[i][:] + [values[i]] for i in range(self.num_rows())] new_labels = self.labels()[:] + [label] return T88ble(new_rows, new_labels)
def select(self, labels): """ Create a copy of a table with only some of the columns, reffered to by the list of labels. >>> simple_table = T88ble(simple_table_rows, simple_table_labels) >>> simple_table.select(["Flavor"]) ['Flavor'] ['chocolate'] ['vanilla'] >>> simple_table ['Flavor', 'Price'] ['chocolate', 2] ['vanilla', 1] >>> longer_table = T88ble(longer_table_rows, longer_table_labels) >>> selected = longer_table.select(['Year', 'Average tank of gas']) >>> selected # Make sure to return and not print ['Year', 'Average tank of gas'] [1990, 12] [2000, 25] [2010, 70] >>> longer_table ['Year', 'Bread price', 'Eggs price', 'Average tank of gas', 'Rent per day'] [1990, 1, 1.5, 12, 7] [2000, 2, 2.5, 25, 10] [2010, 5, 4, 70, 36] """
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
label_indices = [self.labels().index(label) for label in labels] new_rows = [[row[i] for i in label_indices] for row in self.rows] return T88ble(new_rows, labels)

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q T88ble.column

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q T88ble.with_column

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q T88ble.select

Question 5: Sort

Complete the sort function according to the docstring.

You might find the sorted method to be very useful for this question. sorted can take in a key = lambda... just like the min function from the project. Check out the python docs here

    def sort(self, label, descending=True):
        """
        Create a copy of a table sorted by the values in a column.
        Defaults to descending = True. Change to descending = False to make it ascending.

        >>> longer_table = T88ble(longer_table_rows, longer_table_labels)
        >>> longer_table.sort("Year")
        ['Year', 'Bread price', 'Eggs price', 'Average tank of gas', 'Rent per day']
        [2010, 5, 4, 70, 36]
        [2000, 2, 2.5, 25, 10]
        [1990, 1, 1.5, 12, 7]
        >>> longer_table
        ['Year', 'Bread price', 'Eggs price', 'Average tank of gas', 'Rent per day']
        [1990, 1, 1.5, 12, 7]
        [2000, 2, 2.5, 25, 10]
        [2010, 5, 4, 70, 36]
        >>> simple_table = T88ble(simple_table_rows, simple_table_labels)
        >>> sorted = simple_table.sort("Price", descending=False)
        >>> sorted
        ['Flavor', 'Price']
        ['vanilla', 1]
        ['chocolate', 2]
        >>> simple_table
        ['Flavor', 'Price']
        ['chocolate', 2]
        ['vanilla', 1]

        """
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
label_index = self.labels().index(label) new_rows = sorted(self.rows[:], key=lambda x: x[label_index], reverse = descending) return T88ble(new_rows, self.labels())

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q T88ble.sort

Question 6: Where

Complete the where function according to the docstring.

    def where(self, label, filter_fn):
        """
        Create a copy of a table with only the rows that match a filter function.

        >>> def above(x):
        ...     return lambda y: y > x
        ...
        >>> longer_table = T88ble(longer_table_rows, longer_table_labels)
        >>> filtered = longer_table.where('Eggs price', above(2))
        >>> filtered
        ['Year', 'Bread price', 'Eggs price', 'Average tank of gas', 'Rent per day']
        [2000, 2, 2.5, 25, 10]
        [2010, 5, 4, 70, 36]
        >>> longer_table
        ['Year', 'Bread price', 'Eggs price', 'Average tank of gas', 'Rent per day']
        [1990, 1, 1.5, 12, 7]
        [2000, 2, 2.5, 25, 10]
        [2010, 5, 4, 70, 36]
        """
"*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"
label_index = self.labels().index(label) new_rows = [row[:] for row in self.rows if filter_fn(row[label_index])] return T88ble(new_rows, self.labels())

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q T88ble.where

Submit

Make sure to submit this assignment by running:

python3 ok --submit

Extra Credit Practice Open in a new window

These questions are new this semester. They're a mix of Parsons Problems, Code Tracing questions, and Code Writing questions.

Confused about how to use the tool? Check out https://codestyle.herokuapp.com/cs88-lab01 for some problems designed to demonstrate how to solve these types of problems.

These cover some similar material to lab, so can be helpful to further review or try to learn the material. Unlike lab and homework, after you've worked for long enough and tested your code enough times on any of these questions, you'll have the option to view an instructor solution. You'll unlock each question one at a time, either by correctly answering the previous question or by viewing an instructor solution.

Starting from lab 2 onward, each set of questions are worth half (0.5) a point per lab, for a total opportunity of 4-5 points throughout the semester.

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q extra_credit

Lab02 Extra Credit Redo CS61A Late Adds

Please add your email and code to the lab2_extra_credit function if you were a late add from CS61A. Do not abuse this if you were not a late add as we have a record of everyone who was a late add from CS61A.

Use OK to test your code:

python3 ok -q extra_credit_lab2